Seaborne trade is dominated by fear
The next illustration right shows the shift in the relative share of cargo tonnage that is being loaded and unloaded in the sea-ports of developed and developing countries. By developing countries around the world were responsible for about 60 percent of all cargo loaded, as well as unloaded, at seaports. By , the transport corridor between the United States and Asia will be subject to the highest flow of goods in both directions.
By , the North Pacific corridor will surpass the North Atlantic as the main freight corridor. Significant growth will also take place in the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean and Caspian Sea corridors.
The next illustration right, below shows that world seaborne trade, measured in cargo ton-miles, almost doubled during the — time period. Given the developments in global trade patterns noted above, this is no surprise. With more countries—particularly those with emerging economies—participating in global trade, more cargo is being transported across greater distances.
It is worth noting that containerized shipping almost tripled during this time period, compared to the more modest—but still significant—growth in cargo ton-miles for the other types of ships.
When goods are traded internationally, they can be moved over water, air or land. The transport choice depends on the geographic proximity of the trading partners, characteristics of the product to be transported, the relative costs of competing transport modes, and other key facilitating services such as communications.
Because of their reliance on petroleum-based fuels and their dramatic growth rates in recent decades, air and sea transport are responsible for significant emissions of traditional criteria air pollutants e. This study provided an analysis of emissions during the time period, as well as projections out to This sector contributed an average of 2. The figure for was 2. It is worth noting that, compared to other transport modes, international aviation and shipping have few options for transitioning to other, cleaner fuels in the near- to medium-term.
EPA, industry and other entities in the U. These efforts have resulted in some emissions reductions here and abroad. However, because of the very nature of these transportation modes operating largely outside of national boundaries , domestic actions alone cannot control the energy consumption of, or emissions from, these sectors. Working internationally, the U.
By acting through the IMO, the specialized agency for maritime affairs within the United Nations system, we have achieved important reductions in maritime emissions of criteria air pollutants, while avoiding distortions or disruptions of international trade patterns. The quality of fuel that complies with the ECA standard changes over time. In addition, through ongoing, joint work with EPA, the Mexican government has been actively exploring international actions to reduce air pollution from ships near local communities.
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions GHGs and saving energy: In recent decades, industry and government have managed to improve the energy efficiency of ships and airplanes to a considerable degree. There remains considerable potential for using technical and operational measures to further reduce energy consumption and thus, emissions from both ships and airplanes.
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