Difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia
Translations of this page: Difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia, please see Discussion page. Wine is available thanks to the work of many people around the world. See Acknowledgements and Wine History. Wine increases the usefulness of Linux, makes it easier for users to switch to free operating systems, and for Windows developers to make applications that work on them. This greatly raises Linux marketshare, drawing more commercial and community developers to Linux.
There is a lot of confusion about this, particularly caused by people getting Wine's name wrong and calling it WINdows Emulator. When users think of an emulator, they tend to think of things like game console emulators or virtualization software.
However, Wine is a compatibility layer - it runs Windows applications in much the same way Windows does. There is no inherent loss of speed due to "emulation" when using Wine, nor is there difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia need to open Wine before running your application. That said, Wine can be thought of as a Windows emulator in much the same way that Windows Vista can be thought of as a Windows XP emulator: Thinking of Wine as just an emulator is really forgetting about the other things it is.
Wine's "emulator" is really just a binary loader that allows Windows applications to interface with the Wine API replacement. Wine is the base of the project, where most of the work is being done. Wine is not perfect, but tens of thousands difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia people nevertheless use "vanilla" Wine successfully to run a large number of Windows programs.
Unlike the biweekly Wine releases, CrossOver releases are rigorously tested for compatibility with CodeWeavers' supported applications in order to prevent "regressions". CodeWeavers employs a large proportion of the Wine developers and provides a great deal of leadership for difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia project.
All improvements to Wine eventually work their way into CrossOver. Cedega formerly WineX is a product from a company called TransGaming. TransGaming based their product on Wine back in when Wine had a different license, closed their source code, and rebranded their version as specialized for gamers.
In the years since Cedega was originally created from Wine, development on Wine and Cedega have continued mostly independently. TransGaming currently gives back very little code to Wine. Cedega is not "Wine with more gaming support" - because Wine has had years of development since Cedega was made, and many games actually run better under Wine than under Cedega.
Currently, Wine has more advanced Direct3D support than Cedega, but Cedega still has more advanced copy protection support due to TransGaming's licensing of closed source code from a handful of copy protection companies.
Unlike CrossOver, most improvements to Wine don't get into Cedega due to the license differences between Cedega and Wine. Normally you do not have to use the command line to use Wine in Linux.
You can use a graphical interface for most things, much like on Windows. In many cases you can right-click an installer and select "Open with Wine", or just double-click it. You can start installed programs using the shortcut icon or menu. However, there are several situations when you might need to use the command line.
The most common reason is to get debug output when your program does not run properly. You might also want to use utilities such as regedit that do not have menu shortcuts note that you can create them using whatever tools your DE provides. This does difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia hold true for Mac OS X Wine usage, which is all command line currently, unless you use a third party application.
Thousands of applications work well. As a general rule, simpler or older applications tend to work well, and the latest versions of complex applications or difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia tend to not work well yet.
See the Wine Application Database for details on individual applications. If your application is rated Silver, Gold or Platinum, you're probably okay; if it's rated Bronze or Garbage, Wine isn't really ready to run it for most users. If there aren't any reports using a recent version of Wine, however, your best bet is to simply try and see.
If it doesn't work, it probably isn't your fault, Wine is not yet complete. Ask for help on the forum if you get stuck. You can difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia programming or documentation skills, or monetary or equipment donations, to aid the Wine developers in reaching their goals.
One area where every Wine user can contribute to this project is by sending high quality bug reports to our Bugzilla and helping the developers with any followup questions that they may have about your bug. It is impossible and impractical for a developer to have a copy of every program on the market, so we need your help even after your initial bug report.
If a developer difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia a good idea what might be causing the bug, he or she may ask if you can try a patch and see if it fixes the problem.
If the patch works and then makes its way into our main development tree, the bug report will be closed, your help will be appreciated by everyone and your problem will be fixed. For a list of ideas of how you can help, please consult the Contribute difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia of the main page. Bug reports should be submitted to our online Bugzilla system.
To increase developer productivity and facilitate a resolution to submitted bugs, please read the Wiki article on Bugs. High quality bug reports are an essential part of making Wine better. Please note that you should generally avoid submitting bug reports if you have used any third party applications or native DLL overrides. In addition to this wikicheck the Wine HQ Documentation and the users forum.
If you're an ISV looking at porting an application with Winelib you can also try wine-devel. For help with a specific application, search the Application Databasea place where users share their experiences by submitting test data, tips and tricks, and asking questions.
Knowledgeable Wine users hang out there, and often developers will lurk there too. See IRC for more important information. Wine, along with the difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia system you use to run it, generally requires less disk space and memory than Windows itself.
If you're not currently running a Windows application, Wine won't consume any resources at all other than about 20 megabytes of disk space.
Ideally, if an application runs fine in Windows, it should run fine on the same hardware using Wine, provided native drivers for your hardware are installed and equivalent to the Windows drivers.
Open source Linux graphics drivers in particular are often inadequate to run games that work fine on the same hardware in Windows. If there is no native driver for your hardware, Wine will not be able to use it. One example is that the ntfsv3 drivers do not support shared-write mmap, a feature that cannot be emulated and is used by applications such as Steam.
One other point is that Wine is a weird application in ways and some programs work better on case-insensitive filesystems see Case Insensitive Filenames for more details. Until recently with projects such as Wayland, serious alternatives to x11drv weren't even on the horizon so development has focused on X. However, Wine's interface with the graphics driver is designed to be abstract so supporting future graphics systems will hopefully be straight-forward.
Use the version that works best with the particular applications you want to run. In most cases, this will be the latest development version; however, in some cases it may take some experimenting to find it. Wine development is rapid, with new releases in the development branch every two weeks or so. Functionality will usually be best with the most recent development version, however, there are cases where changes to existing code in Wine cause applications that worked well in older versions to not work in the new one these are called regressionsas well as problems caused by the introduction of new, but as-yet-incomplete and untested, functions.
A good rule of thumb is to start with the version of Wine installed with your distro and see if that works with the applications you want to use. If it does, good! If it doesn't, upgrade. If you find an existing bug marked STAGED, this means difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia is a patch for the problem in wine-staging the experimental branchand you should try the latest version in that branch.
If there are known bugs without a STAGED patch or easy workaround, upgrade to the most recent version of Wine known to work for your application. While Wine does have a "stable" branch, the term "stable" refers to the branch as a whole, which is infrequently updated, and for the minor stable releases only with bugfixes promised not to break functionality. Users of a development or staging release can achieve the same degree of stability by simply not upgrading.
Note that user support for the stable branch is limited to the ability to file AppDB test reports. The current stable, development, and staging releases are listed on the WineHQ home page.
Consult your distro's support channels for help using your package manager and interpreting any error messages you may be receiving if you're having problems with distro packages.
Yes, but you will have to build Wine yourself see Building Wineas it is not possible to have multiple distro packages installed. The easiest way to do this is to run Wine from the build directory don't do make install.
If you want to actually install multiple versions, use --prefix when building Wine to designate a different install directory for each version, e. On Linux, even this step is not enough: Note that regardless of whether you install multiple versions or run them from the build directory, you will still have to designate which version of Wine you wish to use when running applications. It is also recommended that applications being run with different Wine versions be installed into separate wineprefixes.
WineHQ binary packages are available for 64 bit, and most major distros package it for users. Normally, installation should be as simple as installing the Wine package for your distribution through your package manager.
Check the Download page. If you are building Wine from source, see Building Wine for instructions on how to build 32 bit Wine on a 64 bit system and instructions on how to build 64 bit Wine in a shared WoW64 setup. If you have replaced the customized distro that came preinstalled on your netbook Xandros, Linpus, etc. If you are still using Xandros eeePCLinpus Acer Aspire One or any other customized distro, you will have to ask on your netbook's support forum. Only other users of those distros can advise you on what, if any, binary packages will work on your system, where to find them, and how to install them.
You can also try building Wine from source following the instructions in Building Winebut you will still need to consult your netbook's support forum regarding satisfying dependencies on your particular system. No, not even in Linux. The Darwine project was an effort to do just that, but it has not been maintained in many years. Uninstalling Wine itself will not revert your Wine settings or uninstall your Windows apps, which are permanently stored in your user's home directory.
Do not uninstall Wine if you only wish to remove all of your settings and apps. For instructions on removing your Wine settings and apps, see How do I wipe the virtual Windows installation? To uninstall 64 bit applications, including wine-mono, you difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia to run it with wine The uninstaller should remove menu and desktop entries
In computer architecturebit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits eight octets. Also, bit computer architectures for central processing units CPUs and arithmetic logic units ALUs are those that are based on processor registersaddress busesor data buses of that size.
From the software perspective, bit computing means the use of code with bit virtual memory addresses. However, not all bit instruction sets support full bit virtual memory addresses; x and ARMv8for example, support only 48 bits of virtual address, with the remaining 16 bits of the virtual address required to be all 0's or all 1's, and several bit instruction sets support fewer than 64 bits of physical memory address.
The term bit describes a generation of computers in which bit processors are the norm. A bit register can store 2 64 over 18 quintillion or 1. The range of integer values that can be stored in 64 bits depends on the integer representation used. With no further qualification, a bit computer architecture generally has integer and addressing processor registers that are 64 bits wide, allowing direct support for bit data types and addresses.
However, a CPU might have external data buses or address buses with different sizes from the registers, even larger the difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia Pentium had a bit data bus, for instance . The term may also refer to the size of low-level data types, such as bit floating-point numbers. Processor registers are typically divided into several groups: However, in modern designs, these functions are often performed by more general purpose integer registers.
In most processors, only integer or address-registers can be used to address data in memory; the other types of registers cannot. The size of these registers therefore normally limits the amount of directly addressable memory, even if there are registers, such as floating-point registers, that are wider.
In contrast, the bit Alpha family uses a bit floating-point data and register format, and bit integer registers. Many computer instruction sets are designed so that a single integer register can store the memory address to any location in the computer's physical or virtual memory. Therefore, the total number of addresses to memory is often determined by the width of these registers.
Some supercomputer architectures of the s and s, such as the Cray-1 used registers up to 64 bits wide, and supported bit integer arithmetic, although they did not support bit addressing. In difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia mids, Intel i  development began culminating in a too late  for Windows NT release; the i had bit integer registers and bit addressing, so it was not a fully bit processor, although its graphics unit supported bit integer arithmetic.
A notable exception to this trend were mainframes from IBM, which then used bit data and bit address sizes; the IBM mainframes did not include bit processors until During the s, several low-cost bit microprocessors were used in consumer electronics and embedded applications. Notably, the Nintendo 64  and the PlayStation 2 had bit microprocessors before their introduction in personal computers. High-end printers, network equipment, and industrial computers, also used bit microprocessors, such as the Quantum Effect Devices R However, not all instruction sets, and not all processors implementing those instruction sets, support a full bit virtual or physical address space.
Difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia x architecture as of [update] allows 48 bits for virtual memory and, for any given processor, up to 52 bits for physical memory. Thus the bit physical address provides ample room for expansion while not incurring the cost of implementing full bit physical addresses.
The Power ISA v3. The Oracle SPARC Architecture allows 64 bits for virtual memory and, for any given processor, between 40 and 56 bits for physical memory. A change from a bit to a bit architecture is a fundamental alteration, as most operating systems must be extensively modified to take advantage of the new architecture, because that software has to manage the actual memory addressing hardware.
The operating systems for those bit architectures generally support both bit and bit applications. The IMPI instruction set was quite different from even bit PowerPC, so this transition was even bigger than moving a given instruction set from 32 to 64 bits.
On bit hardware with x architecture AMD64most bit operating systems and applications can run with no compatibility issues. While the larger address space of bit architectures makes working with large data sets in applications such as digital videoscientific computing, and large databases easier, there has been considerable debate on whether they or their bit compatibility modes will be faster than comparably priced bit systems for other tasks.
A compiled Java program can run on a or bit Java virtual machine with no modification. The lengths and precision of all the built-in types, such as charshortintlongfloatand doubleand the types that can be used as array indices, are specified by the standard and are not difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia on the underlying architecture.
Java programs that run on a bit Java virtual machine have access to a larger address space. Speed is not the only factor to consider in comparing bit and bit processors. Applications such as multi-tasking, stress testing, and clustering — for high-performance computing HPC — may be more suited to a bit architecture when deployed appropriately.
The main disadvantage of bit architectures is that, relative to bit architectures, the same data occupies more space in memory due to longer pointers and possibly other types, and alignment padding. This increases the memory requirements of a given process and can have implications for efficient processor cache use. Maintaining a partial bit model is one way to handle this, and is in general reasonably effective. Not all such applications require a large address space or difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia bit data items, so these applications do not benefit from these features.
The most severe problem in Microsoft Windows is incompatible device drivers for obsolete hardware. Most bit application software can run on a bit operating system in a compatibility mode, also termed an emulation mode, e.
DLL, which cannot call bit Win32 subsystem code often devices whose actual hardware function is emulated in user mode software, like Winprinters. Because bit drivers for most devices were unavailable until early Vista x64using a bit version of Windows was considered a challenge. Most manufacturers started to provide both bit and bit drivers for new devices, difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia unavailability of bit drivers ceased to be a problem.
Driver compatibility was less of a problem with open-source drivers, as bit ones could be modified for bit use. Support for hardware made before earlywas problematic for open-source difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia, [ citation needed ] due to the relatively small number of users. However, most bit applications will work well.
Mac OS X This allowed those Macs to support bit processes while still supporting bit device drivers; although not bit drivers and performance advantages that can come with them. On systems with bit processors, both the and bit macOS kernels can run bit user-mode code, and all versions of macOS include bit versions of libraries that bit applications would use, so bit user-mode software for macOS will run on those systems. This source-based distribution model, with an emphasis on frequent releases, makes availability of application software for those operating systems less of an issue.
In bit programs, pointers and data types such as integers generally have the same length. This is not necessarily true on bit machines. In many programming environments for C and C-derived languages on bit machines, int variables are still 32 bits wide, but long integers and pointers are 64 bits wide. These are described as having an LP64 data model. Another alternative is the ILP64 data model in which all three data types are 64 bits wide, and even SILP64 where short integers are also 64 bits wide.
Another alternative is the LLP64 model, which maintains compatibility with bit code by leaving both int and long as bit. LL refers to the long long integer type, which is at least 64 bits on all platforms, including bit environments. Microsoft Windows uses an LLP64 model. The disadvantage of the LP64 model is that storing a long into an int may overflow. In the LLP64 model, the reverse is true.
These are not problems which affect fully standard-compliant code, but code is often written with implicit assumptions about the widths of data types. A programming model is a choice made to suit a given compiler, and several can coexist on the same OS. However, the programming model chosen as the primary model for the OS application programming interface API typically dominates. Another consideration is the data model used for device drivers.
Drivers make up the majority of the operating system code in most modern operating systems [ citation needed ] although many may not be loaded when the operating system is running. Many drivers use pointers heavily to manipulate data, and in some cases have to load pointers of a certain size into the hardware they support for direct memory access DMA. As an example, a driver for a bit PCI device asking the device to DMA data into upper areas of a bit machine's memory could not satisfy requests from the operating system to load data from the device to memory above the 4 gibibyte barrier, because the pointers for those addresses would not fit into the DMA registers of the device.
This problem is solved by having the OS take the memory restrictions of the device into account when generating requests to drivers for DMA, or by using an input—output memory management unit IOMMU. Most architectures of 64 bits that are derived from the same architecture of 32 bits can execute code written for the bit versions natively, with no performance penalty.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For bit images in computer graphics, see Deep color. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved October 7, Versions of the VR processor are widely used in consumer and office automation applications, including the popular Nintendo 64TM video game and advanced laser printers such as the recently difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia, award-winning Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printer family.
Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on Retrieved November 15, Archived from the original on 26 November Porting Difference between 32 bit and 64 bit software machine wikipedia to x PDF. Ottawa Linux Symposium The kernel, compiler, tool chain work.
Archived from the original on 9 October Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 17 October Retrieved September 10, Archived from the original on 5 April Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original on 23 October How portable is your code, really?