Line follower code nxt robot c programming
This is like defining the "objects" in a program before you start creating instructions and methods. RobotC has two menu driven tools to accomplish this configuration. Click the "Motors" tab. Name the motors as shown below. Note that I used the name "Arm" for "motorA.
Choose names that make sense for the robot's purpose. Click the "Sensors" tab. Make sure to select "Touch", "Reflected Light", and "Sonar. Note that the first 7 lines of your program now contain auto generated code that configures the Hubs, Sensors, Motors, and Servos.
The "pragma config" These define the robot objects in the program. Name it "IntroRobotC" Lesson 2: Start the motors 2. Wait for 2 seconds 3. Stop the motors In your program - type the following code below the Configuration Code: To run your program: Make sure the robot is on. Here is a breakdown: Now try the following program "Out and Back" Lesson 3: Making methods One of the main goals of programming is to create re-usable pieces of directions that make sense to the human reading your Code, and save time and space not having to re-type long series of commands over and over again.
Thus we are going to start making a series of "Methods" that do common tasks. A "Method" is a block of instructions that you can call in the Main Task over and over again. We will make two methods: We use the term "void" before the Method because the method does not return a value.
It only directions action. The "int power" is a parameter for the driveStraight method. This allows the programmer to define how much power will go to the motors.
The "int" means "integer. Note that the main task now uses three lines of code to do what took us 5 lines earlier. Negative numbers will make the motors turn backwards.
Methods using Sensors and While Loops Up to now we have been creating linear sequential programs that only use motor output. The Sensors on the robot Touch, Light, and Sonar provide input and allow us to use some event driven programming. We will use Sensors such as Touch, Light, and Sonar to help guide the robot through the world.
These series of methods follow the same basic robot pattern: We use the parameter "int power" again to let the programmer define how fast the robot should go.
The "while loop" tells the program to run the "driveStraight" method until the touch sensor is touched. When the Touch sensor is pressed, stop the motors. In the "nearStop" method, note the two parameters: The Default distance for the Sonar is measured in centimeters. In the "darkStop" program the parameters "brightness" and "power" allow the user to specify the darkness the robot is looking for and the speed of the motors. The default range of values for the Light sensors ranges from 0 to We can also reduce the basic Forward for Time type program with this method.
Also included is a Method for Point Turns: More Advanced Programs - using variables and methods we have already created. The Nearest Object program. This example spins the robot around. While the robot is spinning, it is seeking out the nearest object using the UltraSonic Sensor. When it is finished spinning, it points back to the nearest object and travels up to the object and stops. Make the back up and then seek the next nearest object Note: Compare the Nearest Object program to this Java Example: Compare to this example in Python: Kp is the Constant of Proportion.
Multiply the "error" to increase the "sensitivity" of the Line follower. Where the robot will travel straight. Tp is the Constant for Power. This is the baseline power for the Left and Right wheels. Method for Line Following: Main Task for Line Following:
The getLightPercent and getLightPortion functions below may need to be created by you. The line follower code nxt robot c programming below is more of a pseudocode than any actual code you can copy-and-paste into your program.
Line Following Methods Example Programs Most line following programs utilize some formula for determining if the robot should move to the left, or right, in order to stay on the line. Whether the line is straight, curved, or a combination of both, the robot will use a simple formula to determine its position in relation to the line and how it should move in order to stay on the line.
There are dozens probably hundreds of different programs that can be written to help the robot follow a line. Several of the various programs are discussed and illustrated below. If the robot has only one light sensor, the line following program will instruct the robot to follow only one side of the line left or right depending on the formulas used in the program and the orientation of the motors in the robot design.
This exercise walks you through the different steps in setting up a line following task and running it from within the main line follower code nxt robot c programming.
The purpose of using a separate task for line following is so you can break from the line following based on the use of existing until functions such as untilSonaruntilTouchuntilDistancewaitetc. Once the condition has been met in the until function, then stop the line following task to stop following the line. The are practical advantages and disadvantages to each. Some programs may work better with un-calibrated sensors--especially those that pass values directly to the steering option of the Move block.
Programs with "Calibrated" light sensors may work in different environments and under different conditions without modification--all that needs to be done is to re-calibrate the sensors.
Values less than 0 will steer the robot in one direction. Values greater than 0 line follower code nxt robot c programming steer the robot in the other direction. If the value is equal to 0 then the robot will drive straight.
The basic idea in using this block for line following is that you want to get the robot to steer in one direction if the light sensor sees the black line and to steer in the other direction if the light sensor sees the white surface background.
There are two basic ways of creating the formula. Light Sensor Value minus a constant k equals the new steering amount Constant k minus the Light Sensor Value equals the new steering amount Which formula you decide to use will depend on whether you want the robot to follow the left side or the right side of the line. The other part of the formula you need to determine is the value for the constant k. In general, the value of the constant k should be set to the midpoint of the light range. The "light range" is the difference between the lowest and highest values obtained from the light sensor.
The duration of the Motor line follower code nxt robot c programming should line follower code nxt robot c programming sent to infinity. And the combination of light sensor, Subtraction with k, and Motor block should be placed within an infinite loop. The power level for the Line follower code nxt robot c programming block should be set to a low value at first and then gradually increase this to see how well the robot is able to follow the line.
Which formula you decide to use will depend on whether you want the robot to follow the left side or the right side of the line.
Pseudocode for the smallest form of this program using Un-Calibrated light sensors: The smallest form of this program works best if using Un-Calibrated light sensors. Pseudocode for the larger form of this program using Calibrated light sensors: If you calibrate the light sensors using the Calibrate block, then the highest value white background would be and the lowest value black line would be 0.
Light Sensor value divided by times 80 minus The direction of the comparison option determines if the robot follows the left or right side of the line. Divide the light sensor value by which converts the difference to a line follower code nxt robot c programming that ranges from 0 to 1.
Now multiply that portion times the maximum power level to get the power for the first motor. Subtract the power for the first motor from the maximum power level to get the power for the second motor. Try to keep the robot moving forward by adding a constant power to both motors.
Now multiply that portion times the maximum power level and add a constant to get the power for the first motor. Multiply that portion times the maximum power level and subtract that product from the maximum power level to get the power for the second motor.
Adjust the performance of the robot by increasing or decreasing the variable amount of power used to calculate the product: Now take the current level of light and subtract it from the target level.
The difference will be negative or positive depending on whether the current level is higher or lower than the target. Multiply that ratio by the amount of variable power. Then add this product to one motor and subtract the product from the other motor. Calculate the difference line follower code nxt robot c programming the light sensors and add to the Difference. Then divide that sum by which converts the difference to a portion that ranges from 0 to 1.
Multiple that difference by 0. Use this product as the value for Steering in a Move block. Measure the color of light reflected from the surface. If White, then you are off of the line Oops. Force a turn to get back on the line. If Green, turn one way and set a value for turning if you eventually see White.
If Blue, turn the other way and set a value for turning if you eventually see White. If Black, just go straight. If touch sensor is not touched, steer toward the wall. If the touch sensor is pressed, then steer away from the wall.
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